Docente

KADO MARUMI MARCELLO
(programma)
Introduction
Introductory remarks and presentation of the course. Founding ideas
and overview of major milestones, predictions and discoveries in the
construction of the Standard Model of Particle Physics.
Fundamental concepts I
Concepts of non stable particles, decay widths, resonances and
definitions of cross sections and flux.
Fundamental concepts II
(i) The Klein Gordon equation, the Yukawa theory and potential,
prediction of the pion. (ii) Early experiments, enrgy loss by
ionization and the discovery of the pion and the muon. (iii) Current
probabilities, the Dirac equation and antiparticles, definition of
spinnors, discovery of the positron and the antiproton.
Continuous Symmetries
Strong Isospin, Strangeness, Mesons and Baryons, Discovery of
resonances. Flavor SU(3) and the eightfold way. The quark model and
color.
Decay rates and Cross Sections
Fermi Golden Rule, Lorentz Invariant Phase Space and decay
rate. Interaction cross sections and Helicity. Origin of the
interaction. Feynman diagrams and QED Feynman rules.
Elastic electron proton scattering
Low energy electronproton scattering, pointlike electronproton
scattering, Rutherford and Mott formulae and full calculation. Traces
techniques, average on helicities. Dirac fermions gyromagnetic moment
(from the Dirac equation). Form factor and magnetic moment. The Stern
and Frisch experiment. Gordon decomposition and general ep scattering
formulation of Rosenbluth. The SLAC Mark III ep scattering
experiments.
Inelastic and Deep Inelastic ep scattering
Lorentz invariants of inleastic scattering, Bkorken x, y and
v. Structure functions, Bjorken scaling and the Callan Gross
relation. The SLAC 8 GeV spectrometer. Structure functions and parton
distributions. The naive parton model.
QCD
QCD and QCD Feynman rules. The parton model and scaling violation
(without gluon emission calculation  see Lecture 20), and
WeizsackerWilliams formalism. QCD in electronpositron
anihilation. Chirality.
Particle Accelerators Intermezzo
Interaction of particles with matter, detection techniques, detection
of charged particles and measurement of particle momenta, EM and
hadronic showers, calorimeter, 4pi detectors and LHC experiments.
Particle and Collider Detectors Intermezzo
Particle accelerators, cyclotrons, sunchrocylotrons and
synchrotrons. Particle colliders, luminosity, electronpositron
colliders, and hadron colliders. The LHC and the LHC beam
parameters. LHC kinematics.
QCD in ElectronPositron Collisions
R ratio, real gluon emission calculation, infrared and collinear
divergences, renormalisation and asymptotic freedom. Hadronisation and
jets in QCD.
The Weak interaction
Beta decay, the experiment of Mme Wu, the VA current and the pion
decay, the discovery of neutral currents.
Intermezzo on Fields, Lagragians and Vector boson Polarisations
From wave functions to fields, definitions of fields. Lagrangians in
Quantum Field Theory, vector boson polarizations, the Feynman gauge.
Electroweak Interaction
Charged currents, example of top polarization. Leptons, lepton flavor
universality, discovery of neutrinos, neutrino DIS. Neutral currents
and the electroweak interaction, the weak hypercharge amd the weak
mixing angle, the photon and the Z boson.
Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking and the Higgs Mechanism
Fields and continuous symmetries, spontaneous symmetry breaking of a
global symmetry and Goldstone bosons, the Goldstone theorem. Chiral
symmetries and the NambuJona Lasinio Model. Spontaneous symmetry
breaking of a local symmetry, the BroutEnglertHiggs mechanism.
The Electroweak Interaction and a Model of LEptons (w/ Higgs
Mechanism)
The Electroweak interaction and the BroutEnglertHiggs mechanism,
Weinberg's "A Model of Leptons", the discovery of the W and the Z
bosons. Precision Electroweak Measurements and the power of the
renormalisation of the Electroweak interaction. LEP and SLC
experiements and Z physics. the discovery of the top quark at Tevatron
and the discovery of the Higgs boson at the LHC.
Neutrino and Quark Flavor Physics
Discrete symmetries, weak eigenstates and mass eigenstates, neutrino mixing and oscillations. The two flavor picture, The three flavor picture and the PMNS matrix. CP violation in the neutrino sector. Neutrino masses. The MSW effect for neutrinos. The weak interaction of quarks CP violation and the baryogenesis. The CKM matrix parameters.
Neutrino and Quark Flavor Physics
Discrete symmetries, weak eigenstates and mass eigenstates, neutrino mixing and oscillations. The two flavor picture, The three flavor picture and the PMNS matrix. CP violation in the neutrino sector. Neutrino masses. The MSW effect for neutrinos. The weak interaction of quarks CP violation and the baryogenesis. The CKM matrix parameters.
Renormalisation of the Higgs Self Coupling
Higgs self Coupling renormalisation group equation (RGE), Landau pole,
Triviality and Vacuum Stability. Implication of the 125 GeV Higgs
boson discovery.
Open Questions and Current Challenges, Outlook
The Standard Model and its open questions, Theoretical shortcommings
(the gauge and flavour hierarchies or the naturalness problem, the
strong CP problem), the unexplained pehnomena (MatterantiMatter
asymmetry, dark matter and dark energy), resolving the naturamless
problem, the example of Supersymmetry.
www.cern.ch/kado/ParticlePhysics.html
